♦ Protect the roots of azaleas and rhododendrons with a heavy mulch of organic materials (i.e., oak leaves, wood chips, or pine straw) on the surface.
♦ For best growth, plant spring bulbs where they are out of the direct sun during the middle of the day.
♦ Bulbs have a chilling requirement that is satisfied by winter soil temperatures. So, avoid planting bulbs near heated basements where the soil may not stay adequately cold. Do not plant bulbs before Nov. 1.
♦ Watch for standing water in perennial beds after long periods of rain. Water that collects on the surface during winter will freeze and can damage perennials. Dig shallow trenches to help drain excess water away. Make a note to raise that bed in spring or plant with plants that like “wet feet.”
♦ When placing plants around the home, remember that, as a general rule, that plants with thick leaves can take lower light levels than those with thin leaves.
♦ If there is any evidence of scale on trees and shrubs, spray with dormant oil in late fall and again in early spring. Follow label directions.
♦ Avoid transplanting shrubs and trees on windy days; the roots can be exposed to too much light or drying winds, putting undue stress on the plant.
Peony varieties that do not require a long cold winter perform better in the South. They can be planted now in full sun and fertile, well-drained soil that is rich in organic matter. Dig holes 18” deep and fill halfway with a mixture of soil, compost, and a handful of 5-10-10 fertilizer. Add a few more inches of soil and set the tubers so the buds are 1-2” below the soil surface. Backfill, firm the soil, and water thoroughly. Peonies do not grow well after being moved and will not bloom for several years.
FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
♦ Plant lettuce and hardy vegetables, such as beets, cabbage, and spinach, in cold frames for winter or early spring crops.
♦ If you use aged manure as a soil conditioner, apply it now and till it under; it can be a source of weed seed.
♦ Rough plow or spade garden plots containing heavy, clay soil. Add organic matter and lime if indicated by a soil test. Leave the soil rough. Winter’s thawing and freezing will break up the clods and kill some of the insects overwintering in the soil. A rough soil surface also catches more moisture and reduces erosion.
♦ When time or weather conditions prohibit plowing or cover cropping, you may let your garden lay under a mulch of compost, non-diseased plant wastes, or leaves all winter to be plowed/tilled under in the spring. If using heavy organic matter, chop fine enough so it can break down over the winter.
Store pesticides in a frost-free location away from food and out of the reach of children. If a pesticide is in a paper container, put the whole package in a plastic container and seal it. Be sure that all bottles and cans are tightly sealed and well labeled.
♦ Remove grass and weeds from trunks of fruit trees and grapes to prevent damage by mice and rodents. Leave a bare circle (one foot wide) around tree trunks when spreading mulch to keep mice from feeding on the bark. A collar or fence of poultry wire or a commercial tree guard approximately 18 inches high will deter rodents and rabbits.
♦ Keep an eye out for spider mites on your houseplants; they thrive in dry air. At the first sign of any insect infestation isolate your plant. Several thorough washings with plain water may bring them under control. If not, apply an appropriately labeled houseplant insecticide and follow the instructions on the label.
♦ During the cooler temperatures and shorter days of winter, the growth of most houseplants slows down. Unless plants are grown under an artificial light source that is left on 16 hours per day, new growth will be minimal until spring. Reduce fertilization and water until late April or May when new growth resumes.
♦ African violets do well when potted in small pots. A good general rule is to use a pot one-third the diameter of the plant. To humidify African violets, surround the pot with moist peat contained in a second pot.